Swacch Bharat: A Success Story in Kamrup, Assam
“Swachh Bharat Mission is a public movement. This is the need of the hour and a change in our behavior is must.”
Shri. Narendra Modi
Hon’ble Prime Minister of India
Kamrup (Metropolitan) district is situated at the bank of mighty river Brahmaputra and is the capital district of Assam. The District has uneven topography, full of hills, plains and rivers.
The Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) aims to achieve Swachh Bharat by 2019, as a fitting tribute to the 150th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. To accelerate the efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage and to put focus on sanitation, the Prime Minister of India launched the Swachh Bharat Mission on 2nd October, 2014.
As covering the Rural areas making District Open Defecation Free (ODF), clean and sanitized.
After achieving the status of ODF (Open Defecation Free) the District had initiated further the ODF+ Project i.e. “Solid and Liquid Waste Management “ as vision was for Sustainability of the Project and seeking the actual Goals of Swachh Bharat Mission, Gramin as making “Swachhta Everyone’s Business”
A pilot project on “Solid Liquid and Waste Management” has been launched on 1st March’2017 in Tatimara village under Chandrapur Block by PHED, Guwahati Division No-1. The work has been awarded to the NGO “ENVIRON” under the supervision of PHED.
The “ENVIRON” is an organization working with dedication and expertise on the ground of Waste Management.
Aim of the Project:
To understand the ‘Waste’ as ‘Resource’
To stop ‘use and throw’ practice of solid waste.
To develop a Clean, Green and Healthy Village
Objectives of the project:
To develop behavioral change for source segregation of biodegradable and non-biodegradable solid waste
To introduce the concept of ‘organic kitchen gardening’ & ‘organic green tea gardening’.
To reuse segregated plastic at source through household level ‘plastic craft’
To mitigate land degradation and minimize soil, water and air pollution
To reduce clogging of drains and flash flood problems
To reduce breeding source of different diseases
In the last 20-30 years back, among the residences of Assam there was a trend of practicing backyard composting through the daily generated biodegradable solid waste. But day by day after increasing the uses of plastics, residents have failed to produce compost due to the mixing of plastic waste along with the biodegradable solid waste. Thus the present scenario of mixing of plastic waste along with the biodegradable solid waste is ruined the entire solid waste management activities and developing huge ‘waste land’ and ‘toxic land’ day by day including the source of different diseases. There is a very inconsistent drainage system present in the Goan Panchayat. According to baseline survey majority of the households discharge the waste water from the households to be released onto public streets/broken storm water drains. Due to flow of waste water into public areas, it has become a major source of bad odor, disease in the Panchayat. It is also observed that the practice followed as liquid waste generated is conveyed through open drains and discharged into the nearest water bodies such as river, lakes and land causing considerable environmental damage.
On 10-03-2017 project was formally launched by Sri Rihon Daimary Honorable Minister, Public Health Engineering, Govt. of Assam, where the project activities was practically started from 01-03-2017.
Design and operation of appropriate solid and liquid waste management systems are necessary for ensuring good sanitation and clean environment. Where, community should realize the necessity of waste management and at the same time there should some economical benefit for the sustainability of the cleanliness activity.
In this respect some simplified methods and ways of managing Solid and Liquid Wastes were introduced. And through various project activities it was ensured to take up in daily practices. Apart from that from the initial phase awareness meeting, training & rallies were organized to sensitized community people in different level and also to make people understand about the concept of “Waste” as to ensure for proper management.
The various ways of managing the wastes are as follows :
Introduction of Household level Plastic Craft
Installation of Individual Waste Assimilator.
Installation of Community Waste Assimilator.
Promotion of Tree Plantation & kitchen Gardening.
Introduction of household level organic farming & domestic ‘Organic Green Tea’ to generate individual interest on SLWM.
Through the project activities ‘Plastic wastes’ are segregated at source and some part of it are utilized for practicing household “Plastic Craft” through converting ‘Plastic waste’ to produce different household & decorative utensils and rest of the ‘Plastic wastes’ are collected from house to house and deposited in a storehouse for future utilization.
On the other hand, daily generated biodegradable solid wastes are utilized for producing both organic manure and bio-pest repellent through the domestic “Waste Assimilator” at household level and the bigger size community “Waste Assimilator” is managing the community generated biodegradable solid waste.
Thus, the project activities are now reintroducing the concept of source management of daily generated biodegradable solid waste for practicing organic kitchen gardening and organic Tea plantation for a healthy environment.
Through the project activities individual benefit is generating out of the solid waste resources and thereby demand is increasing day by day towards a clean and green environment.
The project is now generating the concept of solid waste management and organic cropping which is opening a path for economic growth and enhancement of organic green cover of India along with the achievement the goals of “Swachh Bharat”.
IEC & BCC:
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) and Behavioral Change Communication (BCC) are important components to motivate the community to a systematic waste handler. These intend to create demand for sanitation and hygiene facilities in the project area including ‘Households’, ‘Schools & Colleges’, ‘Institutions’, ‘Markets & Shops’ covering all other concerned beneficiaries.
IEC strategy and plan was implemented not just to create demand but also for use, maintenance and up gradation, so that sanitation and hygiene would become an integral part of the project area and thereby achieving sustainability. Community and culture specific plans will be adopted to achieve 100 per cent awareness coverage along with engagement of local community organization like ‘Namghar Committee’, ‘Mandir Committee’, ‘Masjid Committee’, ‘Local Youth Club’, ‘Local Woman Association’ etc.
The project’s integral part as IEC & BCC the activities as Awareness meeting, Trainings, Rallies, Drama etc have being designed and implemented in various level for sensitization of community people.
After intervention there was a huge change in behavior and practices were adopted by community people as before implementing the project activities, residents of ‘Tatimara’ were usually inserting all the biodegradable solid waste inside the plastic carry bags and then disposed it to the nearby open low lying areas. Some of the residents were use to dump their biodegradable and non-biodegradable solid waste chiefly plastic waste into their backyard compost pit which was finally burned to reduce the volume. Some of the inhabitants of Tatimara were also not feeling any hesitation to throw their composite garbage directly into the nearby drain and roadside. Thus the villagers were simply maintaining a ‘throw away’ culture.
After implementation of the project activities people are now understand the ‘value’ of their generated ‘waste’. Now a wave of source segregation and source utilization of solid waste is generating. The project is developing a practical field of demonstration where, people are now utilizing their biodegradable solid waste for organic kitchen gardening and organic tea gardening. Non-biodegradable solid waste chiefly Plastic waste which is having no market value (at the present scenario) are collected from source and some of the housewives are utilized their generated plastic waste by producing different household utensils and decorative products. Thus a visible change is occurred in the Tatimara Village where there is minimizing the littering of plastic and other solid wastes.
During implementation of the project, immense response was found from the stakeholders of Tatimara village regarding proper management and scientific use of household wastes. Conversions of wastes into assets were well understood by the beneficiaries of Tatimara village. Repeated IEC activities along with physical demonstration helped the beneficiaries to understand the proper sense of Solid &Liquid Waste Management. The following outcomes have been witnessed in concerned village during implementation of the project:
1. The concept and best practices of source segregation was taught during the implementation of the project. Stakeholders well understood the meaning and difference between bio degradable and non-bio degradable wastes followed by proper management.
2. Proper management of biodegradable solid wastes through household level Waste assimilator has been well understood and executed by the stakeholders. Scientific use of Vermi Wastes generated from the waste assimilators in house hold level farming benefitted the stake holders in producing better products with enhanced production by minimizing the attacks of insects.
3. Use of organic manures produced into organic farming, organic tea farming, etc. were well accepted and being practiced by the community with very positive results.
4. Proper use and conversion of non-bio degradable wastes like multilayered plastic wastes in to plastic craft was very beautifully taught and also learnt by the stake holders. Afterwards many attractive and innovative items came out as plastic craft by reusing the multilayered plastic wastes.
5. Difference between single layered and recyclable plastic and multi layered plastic was well understood by the stake holders and its operational procedure practiced by the stakeholders during implementation of the project was also closely monitored by the implementing agency with the help of local resource persons developed from the community during implementation of the project.
6. The Community Waste Assimilator constructed during the project was also very well used with the help of the community. The biodegradable wastes collected from house to house by using the vehicle named “ Seuj Bahan “ developed for the project were well managed by the Community level Waste Assimilator and the unit is run by the trained personnel generated from the community itself.
7. Regarding use of grey water produced from the households was explained to the community during execution of the project. And best practices of management of grey water basically in household level kitchen garden and Duckery Management amongst the community masses were implemented and practiced during the execution of the project.
As such remarkable change in behavior of the community of Tatimara village is observed regarding Solid and Liquid waste management after introduction of the project and it is expected that later on it will help in proper implementation in the entire Kamrup Metro District.